Current Issue Volume 3, Number 1 , January-June 2018

EDITORIAL
Ganesh Chitharanjan

Editorial

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:33] [Pages No:iv]


ABSTRACT.

The newer instruments are ushering in a transformation in the Endodontic field. From lateral condensation to single cone obturation and now back to the warm vertical obturation, the wheel has truly turned a full circle. Predictability and precision are now the new mantras of Endodontics.


PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE
K Ravi Varma

President's Message

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:33] [Pages No:v]



A fruitful and productive 2018 has advanced half way through. I wish all CAESOKians a happy and dynamic time ahead.
CAESOK as we all know has crossed the childhood and reaching the adulthood. With 300 odd members including postgraduate students our association is one of the strongest among the state speciality associations.


SECRETARY'S MESSAGE
Romel Joseph

Secretary's Message

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:33] [Pages No:vi]



Dear members,
Season’s Greetings.
It gives me immense pleasure to write this message in my capacity as CAESOK Secretary. I am privileged to be part of CAESOK team and to take part in its quest for greater success.


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Shemil M Sha, Sajeena Narayanan, Baji Babu, Rajesh Pillai, Nettiyat O Varghese, Afzal A Salim, Abe Antony

Effect of Microelectric Current and Other Activation Techniques on Dissolution Abilities of Sodium Hypochlorite at Different Temperatures in Bovine Tissues: An in vitro Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:33] [Pages No:1-5]



Aim: To study the effects of microelectric current and other methods at different temperatures, on the dissolution of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl).

Materials and methods: Bovine muscle tissues (n = 165) were prepared and grouped into three temperature groups: (1) Room temperature, (2) 45°C, and (3) 600°C. Each temperature group was divided into five subgroups: (i) Control group: 5.25% NaOCl; (ii) 5.25% NaOCl with pipetting; (iii) 5.25% NaOCl with sonic activation; (iv) 5.25% NaOCl with ultrasonic activation; and (v) E-NaOCl = 5.25% NaOCl with microelectric current. Weight of specimens before and after treatment was done. In each group average, standard deviation and median were found out. The data were analyzed using multiway analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) tests. The alpha-type error was set at <0.05.

Results: Tissue dissolution was highest with the ultrasonic group (p < 0.05), and the tissue dissolution ability of other groups was significantly higher than the positive control (p < 0.05) at room temperature. E-NaOCl group dissolved greater quantity of tissue (p < 0.05) at 45°C and at 60°C.

Conclusion: NaOCl used along with microelectric current produced a higher tissue-dissolving ability. Combining with other techniques provides a synergistic effect on tissue dissolution.

Keywords: Microelectric current, Sodium hypochlorite, Temperature, Tissue dissolution.

How to cite this article: Sha SM, Narayanan S, Babu B, Pillai R, Varghese NO, Salim AA, Antony A. Effect of Microelectric Current and Other Activation Techniques on Dissolution Abilities of Sodium Hypochlorite at Different Temperatures in Bovine Tissues: An in vitro Study. Cons Dent Endod J 2018;3(1):1-5.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


RESEARCH ARTICLE
Aparna Ramachandran, B Jyothi Lekshmi, Rajesh Pillai, Nettiyat O Varghese, Afzal A Salim, U-Nu Sujathan

Effect of Conditioning on Adhesion of Glass Ionomer Cements to Dentin

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:33] [Pages No:6-10]



Aim: To compare the shear bond strength (SBS) to dentin, of three different glass ionomer cements (GIC): Ketac Universal (with and without conditioner), Fuji IX, and Ketac Molar.

Materials and methods: Forty-eight extracted human maxillary premolars were selected. Depth holes measuring 1.5 mm were drilled in the deepest part of central fossa of each tooth sample. Occlusal surfaces were ground on a trimmer to expose flat dentinal surface and polished. The specimens were then embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin. Groups I, III, and IV specimens were restored with Ketac Universal, Fuji IX, and Ketac Molar respectively after conditioning. Group II specimens were restored with Ketac Universal without conditioning. A cellophane tube of diameter 4 mm was used to prepare GIC restorations. The samples were kept in water bath at 37°C for 24 hours. Each GIC specimen was loaded in a universal testing machine (INSTRON) with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The bond strength (MPa) was calculated by dividing the shear force in Newton (N) by area of adhesion (m2).

Statistical analysis: The results were statistically analyzed by Welch test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test with pairwise “t” test.

Results: The mean value of SBS was found to be highest for Ketac Molar, followed by Ketac Universal with conditioner, and Fuji IX GIC, and was lowest for Ketac Universal without conditioner.

Conclusion: Ketac Universal, when used without conditioner, showed significant values of SBS, but is less than other conventional GICs.

Keywords: Fuji IX, Ketac Molar, Ketac Universal, Shear bond strength.

How to cite this article: Ramachandran A, Lekshmi BJ, Pillai R, Varghese NO, Salim AA, Sujathan U-Nu. Effect of Conditioning on Adhesion of Glass Ionomer Cements to Dentin. Cons Dent Endod J 2018;3(1):6-10.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


RESEARCH ARTICLE
Nikhil Murali, B Jyothi Lekshmi, Iqbal Sha, Rajesh Pillai, Nettiyat O Varghese, Abdul S Afzal

Effect of Herbal Alternative Irrigant (Green Tea Polyphenols) on the Microhardness of Root Canal Dentin after Instrumentation with Thermomechanically Treated NiTi Instruments: An in vitro Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:33] [Pages No:11-16]



Introduction: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of herbal alternative (green tea polyphenols) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) + NaOCl on the microhardness of root canal dentin after instrumentation with ProTaper Next (PTN; Dentsply) and Twisted Files (TF; SybronEndo).

Materials and methods: Twenty single-rooted human premolar teeth will be instrumented up to the working length with PTN and TF (10 each) and then will be longitudinally sectioned into 40 segments and then embedded in an autopolymerizing acrylic resin. The microhardness of the dentin in the specimen will be measured with a Vickers diamond indenter at the apical third of the roots. Then the specimens will be divided randomly into two groups: 17% EDTA + 2.5% NaOCl and green tea polyphenols. Posttreatment microhardness values will be obtained and the decrease in microhardness will be calculated as a percentage. Microhardness values will be statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests.

Results: Statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that both the file groups with NaOCl + EDTA showed significant reduction in root dentin microhardness (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Even though green tea polyphenols showed lesser reduction in microhardness, its ability to remove smear layer completely and the antibacterial efficacy and practicality of using green tea as a root canal irrigant require further investigations. Its potency to discolor tooth and ability to eliminate biofilm is a matter of debate.

Keywords: Green tea polyphenol, Microhardness, ProTaper Next, Root canal dentin, Twisted File.

How to cite this article: Murali N, Lekshmi BJ, Sha I, Pillai R, Varghese NO, Afzal AS. Effect of Herbal Alternative Irrigant (Green Tea Polyphenols) on the Microhardness of Root Canal Dentin after Instrumentation with Thermomechanically Treated NiTi Instruments: An in vitro Study. Cons Dent Endod J 2018; 3(1):11-16.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


RESEARCH ARTICLE
Minimol K Johny, Balaram Naik, Priya Horatti, Aravindan Devadathan, Baby James, Benley George

Effect of Materials and Techniques on Impact Strength of Reattached Anterior Fractured Teeth: An in vitro Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:33] [Pages No:17-21]



Aim: To evaluate the effects of bonding agents, composite resins, and reattachment techniques on impact strength of permanent maxillary central incisors in which fragment reattachment was done.

Materials and methods: Ninety permanent maxillary central incisors were collected and standardized fragments were obtained from 80 incisors by sectioning them 3 mm away from the incisal edge. The teeth specimens were distributed into eight test groups and one control group (n = 10) according to the reattachment technique (direct bonding or circumferential chamfer); adhesive system (single bond or Clearfil SE Bond); and intermediate material (Filtek flow or RelyX U200). The impact strength of reattached tooth was evaluated using universal testing machine Instron. The results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s multiple post hoc analysis.

Results: The fragment reattachment using circumferential chamfer was significantly superior to direct bonding. The use of single bond significantly increased the impact strength when compared with the use of Clearfil SE.

Conclusion: No technique or material, when individually considered, was capable of achieving the impact strength of the sound teeth; however, the association of reattachment technique circumferential chamfer with adhesive system (single bond) could approximate the impact strength of sound teeth.

Clinical significance: By achieving knowledge about the right materials and techniques for reattachment, this treatment modality could be used as a viable and feasible option for the uncomplicated fractured anterior teeth.

Keywords: Composites, Reattachment, Tooth fracture.

How to cite this article: Johny MK, Naik B, Horatti P, Devadathan A, James B, George B. Effect of Materials and Techniques on Impact Strength of Reattached Anterior Fractured Teeth: An in vitro Study. Cons Dent Endod J 2018;3(1):17-21.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


RESEARCH ARTICLE
Arvind K Alexander, R Mohana Priya, Sheerin Sarthaj, S Maria Antony

Comparative Evaluation of Different Surface Treatments on the Repair Shear Bond Strength of Three Nanohybrid Composites: An in vitro Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:33] [Pages No:22-26]



Aim: To evaluate the effects of different surface treatments on the repair bond strength of three different nanohybrid composites, namely conventional nanohybrid, bulk fill, and ceramicincorporated composites.

Materials and methods: A split mold of height 5 × 5 mm in diameter was taken; 60 composite blocks were prepared based on three composites used. Group I: Kerr nanohybrid, group II: Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill, and group III: NanoCeram. Composite material was restored with incremental layering technique of 2 mm thickness. Aging of the composite blocks was achieved by storing them in distilled water for 1 week and then thermocycling. The samples were surface treated as subgroup A: sandblasting with silica particles, subgroup B: coarse grit diamond bur, subgroup C: etching with 10% hydrofluoric acid, and subgroup D: control group. Surface roughness of each surface-treated sample was evaluated using three-dimensional (3D) profilometer. A silane coupling agent and an adhesive agent were applied. Composite blocks were restored with the respective composite resins using a repair mold. A shearing force test was performed using universal testing machine. A load was applied to the interface at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute until fracture. Analyses were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey test.

Results: Highest shear bond strength was observed in composites surface treated with sandblasting followed by bur and hydrofluoric acid. The lowest shear bond strength was observed in the control group.

Conclusion: Sandblasting surface treatment of Kerr composite manifested the highest bond strength, followed by Tetric N-Ceram and NanoCeram groups. Bur treatment of Tetric N-Ceram showed the higher bond strength values compared with the other groups. HF3 surface treatment of NanoCeram composite presented inferior bond strength values. Repair bond strength of aged nanohybrid resins could be improved with sandblasting, silane, and adhesive resin application compared with other surface treatments.

Keywords: Nanohybrid, Sand blasting, Shear bond strength, Silane coupling agent, Surface treatment.

How to cite this article: Alexander AK, Priya RM, Sarthaj S, Antony SM. Comparative Evaluation of Different Surface Treatments on the Repair Shear Bond Strength of Three Nanohybrid Composites: An in vitro Study. Cons Dent Endod J 2018;3(1):22-26.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


RESEARCH ARTICLE
Geetha Ramachandran, Priya Madhusudanan, Rajesh Pillai, Nettiyat O Varghese, Sheila George, U-Nu Sujathan

Effect of Thermocycling on Microhardness of Two Nanohybrid and One Microhybrid Composites Cured at Different Durations: An in vitro Study.

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:33] [Pages No:27-33]



Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermocycling on microhardness of three composites cured at different durations.

Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty disks (N = 120) were made with a dimension of 5 mm diameter and 2 mm height using a metal mold from three composites (Filtek Z350 XT, Tetric N Ceram, Z100 Universal Restorative). Forty disks each were made with each composite, which were again divided into two subgroups according to the duration of curing, 20 and 40 seconds. Microhardness test was done before and after thermocycling using Vickers microhardness test. Thermocycling was done at -5 and at 55°C for 250 cycles. Values were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, Tukey’s simultaneous comparison.

Results: Among the groups cured for 40 seconds, in the control group, Z100 restorative showed higher microhardness. After thermocycling, even though there was a significant reduction in microhardness in all three composites, Tetric N Ceram showed minimal change in values compared with the other two composites.

Conclusion: It was concluded that after thermocycling, the composite resins are susceptible to significant reduction in microhardness.

Clinical significance: Patient’s oral conditions, such as the cyclic thermal gradient and humidity can have negative effects on the mechanical properties of restorative materials. This is one of the factors contributing to a future need for replacement of dental restorative materials.

Keywords: Microhardness, Nanocomposites, Thermocycling.

How to cite this article: Ramachandran G, Madhusudanan P, Pillai R, Varghese NO, George S, Sujathan U-Nu. Effect of Thermocycling on Microhardness of Two Nanohybrid and One Microhybrid Composites Cured at Different Durations: An in vitro Study. Cons Dent Endod J 2018;3(1):27-33.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM
Ravi Varma, Prabhat Singh

CAESOK 16th Midterm and 8th Postgraduate Convention, Kochi

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:33] [Pages No:34]


CAESOK 16TH MIDTERM AND 8TH POSTGRADUATE CONVENTION, KOCHI


SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM
Baby James, Josey Mathew, Jeev Thomas Cherian

CAESOK 16th Annual conference and family meet, Kumarakom

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:33] [Pages No:35-36]



Friends come & go, but family lasts forever!!
We wholeheartedly invite all the members of the Caesok family for the 16th Caesok annual conference & family get together, on 15th and 16th September 2018 at Lakesong resort, Kumarakom.


© JAYPEE BROTHERS MEDICAL PUBLISHERS (P) LTD.